Back to Main Entry

Table of Contents of The History of Islamic Theology


Chapter I: The Koran, the Foundation of Islamic theology

  1. The Koran in Islamic Faith
  2. Islam
  3. Early History of the Koran
  4. Central Themes of the Koran’s Message

Chapter II: Faith and “Islam”

  1. Muslim Views on the Origin of Religious Persuasions
  2. On Islamic History between 632 and 750
  3. Divine Determination versus Human Determination
  4. The Kharijites
  5. The Shiites
  6. Judgment Postponed
  7. The Beginnings of Sunnism

Chapter III: The Two Types of Islam’s Theological Literature

  1. TheĀ Hadith
  2. TheĀ Kalam

Chapter IV: Early Rationalism

  1. Arab-Muslim Society
  2. A Glance at the Early Abbasid Period
  3. The One God and His Revelation
  4. Human Actions
  5. Physics and Metaphysics
  6. Sunnites and Shiites as Opponents of Rationalist Theology

Chapter V: Rationalism and Tradition

  1. The Caliphate’s Political Decline
  2. Early Theological Reflection in Sunnism
  3. Sufism and Rationalism
  4. Sunnite Rationalism
  5. The Asharite School

Chapter VI: Theology and Philosophy

  1. Exoteric and Esoteric Meaning of the Revelation
  2. A Glance at the History of the Islamic Mind in the High Middle Ages
  3. Islamic Philosophy
  4. Re-establishing All Creatures’ Power of Being
  5. Islamic Theology in the High and Late Middle Ages

Chapter VII: Islam and Gnosis

  1. Prophetic Message and Gnostic Weltanschauung
  2. Gnosis and Early Islamic Theology
  3. Gnosis within Islam

Chapter VIII: Islamic Orthodoxy

  1. Sunnism as the Religious Creed of the Majority
  2. Orthodoxy and the Islamic State
  3. Shiite Orthodoxy

Chapter IX: Islam as Ideology

  1. Islam Is Knowledge
  2. Reform in the Spirit of Orthodoxy
  3. Islam as Ideology


  1. Summary
  2. The Tasks

Recommendations for Further Reading
Glossary of Arabic Terms

  1. Persons
  2. Concepts and Groups