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Table of Contents of Politics in a Half-Made Society: Trinidad and Tobago 1925–2001

List of Illustrations
List of Tables
List of Abbreviations

Introduction: Prelude to Self-Government

1. The Establishment of Electoral Politics, 1925–53: “We are all individuals”

Part I. The Long Reign of Eric Williams, 1956–81

2. The Coming to Power of Eric Williams, 1954–62: ‘PNM Against The Rest’
“I Am Going to Let Down My Bucket Right Here”: Dr. Eric Williams, 1954–5
“The PNM Against the Rest”: The Campaign of 1956
“Opposition for So”: The Rise of the DLP, 1957–60
“The Bankruptcy Which I Defy”: Making the PNM’s Will Prevail, 1960–62

3. Politics in the Independence Period, 1962–81: “Right Back to 1956”
“Don’t Stop the Carnival”: Unconventional Politics, 1962–73
“Right Back to 1956”: The PNM Against the Rest, 1973–81

Part II: Paved with Good Intentions: The Rise and Fall of the National Alliance for Reconstruction, 1981–91

The Fall of the PNM, 1981–6: “All Ah We Tief”
“What is Wrong Must Be Put Right”: George Chambers and the General Elections of 1981
“The Fete is Over”: Facing the Economic Downturn, 1982–3
“The Party of Parties”: The Rise of the National Alliance for Reconstruction
“Vote Them Out, Please”: The General Elections of 1986
The Fall of the NAR, 1987–91: “Between Good Intentions and Effective Implementation”
“Rough Seas”: The NAR’s First Nine Months
“Change and Exchange”: The Expulsion of CLUB 88, 1987–88
“Prime Minister Robinson Has Been Overthrown”: The Road to the Attempted Coup d’État, 1989–90
The NAR’s Final Year, 1990–91

Part III: Toward Stalemate: Structural Adjustment, Indian Arrival, and Slim Majorities

6. The Fall of the Manning Administration, 1992–95: “Father of The Nation”
Setting the Political Configuration of the 1990s: The PNM, UNC, and NAR
Structural Adjustment Under the PNM, 1992–95
The 1994 By-Elections: Political Openings in Trinidad
The Consolidation of the UNC, 1992–95
“Father of the Nation” and Indian Arrival: Toward the Snap Elections of 1995
The Campaign of 1995
The UNC Government, 1995–2001: “None Shall Escape Unscathed”
“The Government of National Unity”: Consolidating the UNC Regime, 1995–97
The UNC “Rampant”, 1997–99
“Judge Us by Our Performance”: From the Elections of 1999 to 2000
“Who Want to Resign, Resign!”: The Aborted Parliament, 2001
Impact, Implication, and Recommendations
Conclusion: The Ghost of Dr Williams



A. Chronology of Political Events, 1921–2001
B. Summaries of Election Results, 1925–2001
C. Distribution of Constituencies By Party, 1956–2001
D. Selected Economic Indicators, 1970–2000
E. The Structure of Government
F. Regional Distribution of Legislative Council and Parliamentary Seats, 1925–2001
G. List of Interviews