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Table of Contents of People and Issues in Latin American History, Vol. I: The Colonial Experience

Preface to the Third Edition

Section I: Columbus and the Transit of Civilization

The Iberian Background

1. Stuart B. Schwartz: Brazil’s Portuguese Heritage Should Not Be Forgotten
2. Derek W. Lomax: Spain During the Reconquest
3. Felipe Fernández-Armesto: The Conquest of the Canary Islands

Christopher Columbus: Man and Myth

4. Christopher Columbus: “I have found many islands, inhabited by numberless people”
5. John Noble Wilford: His Place in History

From Hemisphere to Hemisphere

6. William D. Phillips, Jr., and Carla Rahn Phillips: The Effect of the American Conquests on Europe
7. Alfred W. Crosby: The Disastrous Effects of European Diseases in the New World

Section II: Was Inca Rule Tyrannical?

Favorable Assessments

1. Pedro Cieza de Léon: How the Incas Achieved So Much
2. Mancio Sierra de Leguízamo: Spaniards Corrupted an Ideal Indian Society
3. Garcilaso de la Vega: “The Incas Had Attained to a High State of Perfection … No Thoughtful Man Can Fail to Admire So Noble and Provident a Government”

The Spanish Justification for Conquest

4. Lewis Hanke: Viceroy Francisco de Toledo’s Attack on Inca Rule

A Modern Interpretation

5. Alfred Métraux: “The Incas Combined the Most Absolute Kind of Despotism with the Greatest Tolerance Toward the Social and Political Order of Its Subject Peoples”

Section III: Patterns of Conquest


1. Bartolomé de las Casas: “They Slaughtered Anyone and Everyone in Their Path”


2. Bernal Díaz del Castillo: The True History of the Conquest of Mexico
3. Miguel Léon Portilla: The Grief of the Conquered: “Broken Spears Lie in the Roads”
4. Ross Hassig: “The Conquest of Mexico was Not the Victory of a Spanish Juggernaut”
5. Inga Clendinnen: The Conquest of Yucatán

The South American Frontier

6. Doña Isabel de Guevara: “The Men Became So Weak that All the Tasks Fell on the Poor Women”
7. Louis de Armond: In Fighting Ability, the Araucanians Soon Surpassed the Spaniards

Section IV: The Spanish Struggle for Justice

The First Cry for Justice

1. Lewis Hanke: The Sermons of Friar Antonio de Montesinos, 1511

Fundamental Laws

2. Inter Caetera, the Papal Bull of 1493
3. The Requirement, 1513, a Most Remarkable Document
4. The New Laws, 1542
5. Royal Ordinances on “Pacification,”1573

The Valladolid Debate

6. Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda: “War Against These Barbarians Can Be Justified”
7. Bartolomé de las Casas: In Defense of the Indians


8. Charles Gibson: Spanish Exploitation of Indians in Central Mexico
9. Lewis Hanke: The Dawn of Conscience in America

Section V: The Introduction of African Slavery in Spanish America

The Atlantic Slave Trade

1. Ann M. Pescatello: “The Greatest Involuntary Migration in Western History”

Section VI: António Vieira and the Crises of Seventeenth-Century Brazil

The “Babylonian Captivity”

1. Stuart B. Schwartz: Brazil Under Spanish Rule, 1580–1640

The Dutch in Brazil

2. Charles R. Boxer: The Humanist Prince Johan Maurits in Recife, 1637–1644

The Sermons and Letters of António Vieira

3. Sermon Condemning Indian Slavery, 1653
4. Sermon for Sexagesima Sunday, Preached in the Royal Chapel, Lisbon, 1655
5. Letter to King Alfonso VI of Portugal, April 20, 1657
6. Report on the Conversion of the Nheengabas, Letter to Alfonso VI, November 28, 1659

The African Threat

7. Raymond K. Kent: Palmares: An African Threat in Brazil

Section VII: The Development of Society

The Position of Women

1. Donald Chipman: Isabel Moctezuma: Pioneer of Mestizaje
2. James Lockhart: Spanish Women of the Second Generation in Peru

Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz

3. Irving A. Leonard: Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz: “The Supreme Poet of Her Time in Castilian”

The Texture of Urban Life

4. Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa: Class and Caste in Eighteenth-Century Quito
5. Lewis Hanke: The Imperial City of Potosí, Boom Town Supreme
6. Charles R. Boxer: The Bay of All Saints

Section VIII: Crisis and Climax in the Eighteenth Century

The Revolt of Tupac Amaru in Peru

1. Luis Martin: The Last Incan Rebellion
2. Benjamin Keen: Documents from the Revolt of Tupac Amaru
3. Ward Stavig: A Modern Interpretation


4. Lyle N. McAlister: The Reorganization of the Army
5. Alexander von Humboldt: Problems and Progress in Mexico

Section IX: Historical Interpretations

1. Juan de Solórzano y Pereyra: A Seventeenth-Century Defense of Spanish Treatment of the Indians
2. Philip W. Powell: The Three Centuries of Spanish Rule in America Should Not Be Characterized as a “Tyranny” or as “Oppressive”
3. Stanley J. and Barbara H. Stein: The Pre-eminent Social Legacy of Colonialism was the Degradation of the Labor Force, Indian and Negro, Everywhere in Latin America
4. R. A. Humphreys: The Fall of the Spanish American Empire

Suggestions for Further Reading and Viewing