Back to Main Entry

Table of Contents of Ancient African Civilizations: Kush and Axum



I. Kush and Its Neighbors

The Exploration of Nubia and the Red Sea

A Greek Account of the Geography of Nubia

The Gold Mines of Lower Nubia

A Description of Meroƫ

The History and Customs of the People of Kush

The Trogodytes: Nomads of the Nubian Desert

The Ostrich Eaters

II. Kush and Rome

First Contact between Rome and Kush: The Triumphal Inscription of Cornelius Gallus

Peace between Rome and Kush (20 B.C.E.)

Kush in the First Century C.E.: Nero’s Aithiopian Expedition

A Roman Soldier and his God in Namibia: The Mandulis Hymn of Paccius Maximus

Isis of Philae, Mistress of Nubia: The Graffito of Pasan, Son of Paese (April 10, 253 C.E.)

The Roman Withdrawal from Nubia (298 C.E.)

III. The Rise of Axum and the Decline of Kush

Red Sea Trade and the Emergence of the Kingdom of Axum

The Empire of Axum

Ezana and the Bega

Protection of Axumite Trade

The Axumite Gold Trade

The Introduction of Christianity to Axum

The Destruction of Meroƫ (ca. 360 C.E.)

IV. The End of Antiquity

The Struggle of Power in Lower Nubia: The Silko Inscription

Treaty between the Blemmyes, Nobatai, and Rome (ca. 453 C.E.)

The Christianization of Nubia

Contract for the Sale of a Nubian Slave Girl (Sixth Century C.E.)

Axum in the Sixth Century C.E.

Meeting with a King of Axum

Letter from the Governor of Egypt to the King of the United Kingdom of Makouria and Nobatia (759 C.E.)

Select Bibliography